Friday, July 10, 2020

IELTS Task 2 Education Essay Samples

IELTS Task 2 Education Essay SamplesAfter the first place IELTS test, students are now ready to move on to the second level of the course. The second and third levels of the course will be tough, but IELTS test will not be an issue. In this article, you will see some of the best task 2 education essay samples for you to follow.The ideal essay sample will be one that will not only help you get through the course but will also let you see some of the tricks and tips of the trade. It would be a great help if you could pick up one of these sample essays. These sample essays are usually written by the student himself and hence it would be easier for you to understand them. It will also allow you to see what you are able to do in order to succeed in this challenging curriculum.The first thing you will want to see is that these test studies are brief and simple. Most people find it hard to sit down and start writing a book report and expecting it to be easy and light-hearted. They want thei r work to be as efficient as possible. It's true that you need to keep the subject serious in your writing and if you have time, you may want to add a couple of humorous lines in there.Also remember that these test papers are not meant to be perfect and yet they should be interesting. This is why they have been written short and simple. A quick way to tell if you've done a good job is if the reader leaves the paper with more questions than answers. Also keep in mind that they are not written in this format to be put up on the exam room wall.Remember, you will not get a chance to study in the room or study your test on your computer. It will be in person and only when you pass the test will you know if you have passed. So do not let your anxiety get the better of you. You need to be confident and patient. You will know when you have passed when you get an answer back.One last note about the IELTS test, before you study any of the IELTS test, you should sit down and discuss with your parents what the homework would be. The best thing to do in this case is to go and visit a buddy or relative who can help you in any way possible. They will be able to give you the answer to any question that you have.So I hope that you have enjoyed reading about some of the best IELTS test samples. You now have a good idea of what you can expect when you take the test. Good luck!

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Embryonic Research A Battle of Fallacies Essay - 1431 Words

Many women are eager to become a mother, but infertility prevents some women from satisfying this need. To counter this widespread problem, we develop reproductive choices. One of the most important choices is in vitro fertilization. Even though this method significantly increases pregnancy rate in infertile women, it comes with the problem. Underlying in vitro fertilization is research on living human embryos. We need to research on countless living embryos in order to develop clinical in vitro fertilization. This stirs public attention on its morality. Society asks: Are we killing thousands of human life while we are developing method to give birth to other ones? This question is crucial because it is asking very foundation of our†¦show more content†¦He emphasizes the important of embryos’ life and right to develop to be a mature human. First logical fallacy found in Kass’s essay is inappropriate generalization with the lacking of evidence. Kass supports his statement that life begins at fertilization by asserting, â€Å"Any honest biologist must be impressed by these facts, and must be inclined, at least on first glance, to the view that a human life begins at fertilization† (101). In this sentence, he claims that any honest biologist must agree with him. There is no evidence, or at least, reason provided to support this claim. Apart from inappropriate generalization, Kass also frames his readers’ perspective by using several accusatory words and erroneous analogy to portray embryonic research in devilish way. He describes embryonic research as â€Å"destruction of fetal life† (103), â€Å"destruction of blastocyst† (104), and â€Å"manipulative experiments involving such embryos† (104). Moreover, Kass analogizes the research method with cannibalism. He writes, â€Å"We would, I suppose, recoil even from the thought, let alone the practice†¦of eating such embryos†¦Ã¢â‚¬Ëœhuman caviar’ † (102). He adds that â€Å"human blastocyst would be protected by our taboo against cannibalism† (102). Then Kass concludes that human embryo is not a mere meat and it should be protected from invasive research. In this human caviar analogy, however, Kass omits a crucialShow MoreRelatedEmbryonic Research1080 Words   |  5 Pagesreproductive choices, we need to rese arch on living human embryo. Because its procedures terminate the life of embryo, embryonic research stirs up public attention on its morality. Society questions if these methods are morally right. Do they violate the meaning of personhood and life? Do we kill a human when we research the embryos? These questions are asking our foundation of morality. We must be cautious and avoid any logical fallacies when we answer them. Using logical fallacies to discuss these profoundRead MoreEssay on Ethical Theories of Embryonic Stem Cells1771 Words   |  8 PagesResearching the future potential of embryonic stem cells is the new hot topic debate in ethics. The moral objections from two opposing sides clash in a political and ethical battle of who is correct. Each faction tries to define the classification of what deserves unalienable human rights. Likewise, determining what is classified as human behavior such as sentiment, interests and pain has been the ground on which pro-stem cell rese arch stand. Since these embryos share only genetic similarities andRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 Pagesthink you will find the following classification of cases by subject matter to be helpful. I thank those of you who made this and other suggestions. Classification of Cases by Major Marketing Topics Topics Most Relevant Cases Marketing Research and Consumer Analysis Coca-Cola, Disney, McDonald’s, Google, Starbucks Product Starbucks, Nike, Coke/Pepsi, McDonald’s, Maytag, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Newell Rubbermaid, DaimlerChrysler, Kmart/Sears, Harley-Davidson, Boeing/Airbus, MerckRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesalternatives to narrowly conceived interpretations, and offer quite an original take on the most extensively covered conflicts in human history and the decades of unprecedented global violence they framed. Morrow’s contribution here, as in his recent research and scholarship as a 6 †¢ INTRODUCTION whole, treats the two wars and their prehistory and aftermaths as genuinely global phenomena, not as conflicts among the great powers of Europe, the United States, and Japan, which has been theRead MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words   |  1351 Pagesmembership of learned societies, and scientific publications, is doubling every 15 years. The money spent on applied research is doubling every 7 years, and so also is the demand for electronics and aviation. If all these processes were to continue unchecked . . . within about 100 years every one of us would be a scientist, the entire national output would be absorbed in research, and we should be spending most of our lives airborne at 40 000 feet. â€Å" . . . world population, and also the available

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Eternal Reward And Consequences Beyond Residency Essay

There will be eternal reward and consequences beyond residency in heaven. The judgment time is called the Bema Seat of Christ or judgment seat of Christ. That day of reckoning is described in the following three passages: 1 Corinthians 3:12-15, 2 Corinthians 5:10, and Romans 14:10-12. These passages include a reckoning of more than just financial issues. The above truth is a sobering fact of Scripture. If Millennials were to internalize these values, it would create a sense of careful calculations in all matters of life. After determining that God owns all things and that Christians are accountable to God, it is important to clarify how the word steward is used in the Bible. In biblical times a steward was a trusted person given responsibility for someone else’s possessions which may include care for livestock, immediate family members, or servants. , A steward’s duty was to manage on behalf of the master with the purpose to increase the master’s resources or influence. Finally, it implied some form of judgment or reckoning to reward the steward if he was faithful in the management of the entrusted resources. â€Å"Often, stewardship is thought of only in terms of finances, but the Bible teaches that stewardship is a far greater concept, involving how we respond with all of our life.† For the purposes of this dissertation topic, the Project Director acknowledges stewardship includes more than finances but will focus predominantly on financial stewardship. If the project Show MoreRelatedThe Great Divorce and The Divine Comedy3095 Words   |  13 Pageschoice of the individual soul, while Dante shows the results of one’s choices. Perhaps, this is why Lewis does not focus on hell extensively, while Dante does. Dante explores the reasoning behind sins, focusing on the punishments, the penance and rewards of riding oneself of the seven deadly sins and the distortions of love that lead to those sins. Dante represents how sins are sorted into hierarchies of punishment and penance, namely appetites, seen as less damning, and distortions of love, whichRead More8 stages of social development6628 Words   |  27 Pagescausing a shift toward the opposite pole. Me decades become us epochs as we constantly spiral up, or spiral down in response to life conditions. Some social stages stress diversity generators that reward individual initiatives and value human rights. Other social stages impose conformity regulators and reward cooperative, collective act ions. Societies will zigzag between these two poles, thus embracing different models at each tilt. Once a new social stage appears in a culture, it will spread its instructionalRead MoreCommercial Liens - a Potent Weapon Essay32374 Words   |  130 Pagespublisher guarantee that using this information will result in success or protect the reader from harm. The reader must accept that risk, and thoroughly study the law before using any of this material. Readers must take full responsibility for the consequences of any actions taken based on the contents of this manual. For most readers, you may well be best off reading this as a sort of adventure novel. You can learn of some of the actual documents and procedures being used by many freedom fightersRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesdecades of agrarian and industrial depression from the late 1860s to the 1890s, as well as the social tensions and political rivalries that generated and were in turn fed by imperialist expansionism, one cannot begin to comprehend the causes and consequences of the Great War that began in 1914. That conflict determined the contours of the twentieth century in myriad ways. On the one hand, the war set in motion transformative processes that were clearly major departures from those that defined the

Key Reason to Hold the Inventory

Question: Identify key reasons that organizations may need to hold inventories. What factors may lead an organization to change the level of inventories that it holds? How could such a decision affect the other elements of working capital? Answer: Key reason to hold the inventory One of the major reasons for organization to hold the inventory is to manage and control the increase and decrease of demand and supply within the changing market environment. The growing and demand of product makes the company to hold the inventory in order to increase the price of the product to gain the maximum benefit out of it (Arthur et al. 2010). Apart from that, organization also holds the inventory in order to lower purchase for future. This helps the organization helps to gain the price benefit when the price of raw materials is higher at peak season. Another major benefit is to take advantages of economies scale which is very much helpful for the organization in the long run. On the other hand, holding inventory creates higher sales during the seasonal products offerings (Berger et al. 2007). For instance, during year 1994, Dell computer faces losses because of demand of products was decline because of the too much of stock push which ultimately results into write off the inventory. Moreover, inventory helps the manufacturing company to reduce the uncertainty and help to availability of products and services in the market e.g. FMCG and grocery items (Campbell and Shiller, 2008). However, most of the organisation or rather industry holds the inventory to increase the price of their products. Some of the major company that holds the inventory to increase the price of the products are cement and oil companies has formed cartels to hold the supplies to create higher price. Factors lead to change the level of inventory Changing demand: With the changing market trend and demand keeps the manufacturer to hold the inventory which helps them to manage the variation in demand. Manufacturing organization keeps changing its plan as per the increase in decrease of demand and sales (Dechow, 2008). Holding raw materials helps the company to always be ready to cope with changes in demand in near future. Most of the organizations estimate its demand cost of products and accordingly hold the inventory in order to manage the higher demand of the products (Finger, 2008). Price: Other major factors that influences the companies to hold their inventory is price. Most of the companies hold their inventory to increase the price fluctuation within the existing market. Some of the major companies who are form cartel to increase the price are oil and gas companies (Hashemi, 2008). Apart from that, some of the manufacturing companies estimate the increase in the price of raw materials lead to change in future makes them purchase more and hold the inventory to reduce their cost of production in near future. Apart from that, it also helps the organization to reduce the cost of transformation which is rising with every year (Khairurizka, 2009). Availability of products: Form most of the FMCG companies like Wal-Mart, Tesco and Coles holing inventory to cater the rising demand of the products. Company hold or rather store most of inventory to take advantages of product availability in the market incomer to other competitors (Lewellen, 2009). Apart from that, it also helps the companies to gain the seasonal discount and off season price for the consumers which help these retail companies to gain the large customer base. Inventory decision making affects the working capital Holding inventory affect the working capital of the company in many ways it affects the short term receivables, cash bank balance and accounts receivables and accounts payables. Working capital management helps the company to smooth running of their operations (Balakrishnan and Sivaramakrishnan, 2008). Holding the inventory may increase the company accounts payables or increase the cost of inventory holding which may lead to difficulty in managing the operations. If the accounts payables is affected due to higher inventory holding cause the company huge shortage of cash for managing their short term obligations (Banker and Chen, 2006). This will also impact in their working capital cycle of the company which would affect the company cash flow statement. Holding large inventory needs lots of cash spending which may affect the supply chain of the company (Khairurizka, 2009). Short term loan will be required to gain the smooth running of existing operation which will creates huge problem for the company because company has to pay interest on loan. Most of the MNC like Tesco and Asda keep their inventory intact which why their current ratio are poor. For manufacturing the storing of the large inventory or holding inventory is to create the demand of the products for seasonal sales which again helps the company to increase their sales. Working capital cycle is very much affected by the inventory management because it can create imbalance between the trade receivable and trade payables. Reference List Journals Arthur, N., Cheng, M. and Czernkowski, R. (2010) "Cash flow disaggregation and the prediction of future earnings". Accounting Finance, 50, pp. 130. Berger, P., Ofek, E. and Swary, I. (2007) "Investor valuation of the abandonment option", Journal of Financial Economics, 42, pp. 257287 Campbell, J. and Shiller, R. (2008) The dividend-price ratio and expectations of future dividends and discount factors. Review of Financial Studies 1, 195228. Dechow, P.M. (2008) "Accounting Earning and Cash Flows as Measures of Firm Performance", Journal of Accounting and Economics, 18, pp. 3-42. Finger, C. A. (2008) "The Ability of Earnings to Predict Future Earnings and Cash Flow", Journal of Accounting Research 32, pp. 210-223. Hashemi, S. A. (2008) Analyze the relationship between operating cash flows and accruals, operating cash flow forecasting model, according and Auditing Review, 38, 1-24. Khairurizka, R. (2009) The effect of financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating activities in the interim report to the stock return,) Chinese Business Review, 8(6) , 44-53. Lewellen, J. (2009) Predicting returns with financial ratios, Journal of Financial Economics, 74, 209-235 Balakrishnan, R. and Sivaramakrishnan, K. (2008) A critical overview of the use of fullcost data for planning and pricing. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 14: 3-31 Banker, R., and Chen, L. (2006) Predicting Earnings Using a Model Based on Cost Variability and Cost Stickiness. The Accounting Review 81, 285307.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Science Alchemy Alchemy, Ancient Art Practiced Especially In The Middl

Science Alchemy Alchemy, ancient art practiced especially in the Middle Ages, devoted chiefly to discovering a substance that would transmute the more common metals into gold or silver and to finding a means of indefinitely prolonging human life. Although its purposes and techniques were dubious and often illusory, alchemy was in many ways the predecessor of modern science, especially the science of chemistry. The birthplace of alchemy was ancient Egypt, where, in Alexandria, it began to flourish in the Hellenistic period; simultaneously, a school of alchemy was developing in China. The writings of some of the early Greek philosophers might be considered to contain the first chemical theories; and the theory advanced in the 5th century BC by Empedocles?that all things are composed of air, earth, fire, and water?was influential in alchemy. The Roman emperor Caligula is said to have instituted experiments for producing gold from orpiment, a sulfide of arsenic, and the emperor Diocletia n is said to have ordered all Egyptian works concerning the chemistry of gold and silver to be burned in order to stop such experiments. Zosimus the Theban (about AD 250-300) discovered that sulfuric acid is a solvent of metals, and he liberated oxygen from the red oxide of mercury. The fundamental concept of alchemy stemmed from the Aristotelian doctrine that all things tend to reach perfection. Because other metals were thought to be less "perfect" than gold, it was reasonable to assume that nature formed gold out of other metals deep within the earth and that with sufficient skill and diligence an artisan could duplicate this process in the workshop. Efforts toward this goal were empirical and practical at first, but by the 4th century AD, astrology, magic, and ritual had begun to gain prominence. A school of pharmacy flourished in Arabia during the caliphates of the Abbasids from 750 to 1258. The earliest known work of this school is the Summa Perfectionis (Summit of Perfection) , attributed to the Arabian scientist and philosopher Geber; the work is consequently the oldest book on chemistry proper in the world and is a collection of all that was then known and believed. The Arabian alchemists worked with gold and mercury, arsenic and sulfur, and salts and acids, and they became familiar with a wide range of what are now called chemical reagents. They believed that metals are compound bodies, made up of mercury and sulfur in different proportions. Their scientific creed was the potentiality of transmutation, and their methods were mostly blind gropings; yet, in this way, they found many new substances and invented many useful processes. >From the Arabs, alchemy generally found its way through Spain into Europe. The earliest authentic works extant on European alchemy are those of the English monk Roger Bacon and the German philosopher Albertus Magnus; both believed in the possibility of transmuting inferior metals into gold. This idea excited the imagination , and later the avarice, of many persons during the Middle Ages. They believed gold to be the perfect metal and that baser metals were more imperfect than gold. Thus, they sought to fabricate or discover a substance, the so-called philosopher's stone, so much more perfect than gold that it could be used to bring the baser metals up to the perfection of gold. Roger Bacon believed that gold dissolved in aqua regia was the elixir of life. Albertus Magnus had a great mastery of the practical chemistry of his time. The Italian Scholastic philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas, the Catalan churchman Raymond Lully, and the Benedictine monk Basil Valentine (flourished 15th century) also did much to further the progress of chemistry, although along alchemical lines, in discovering the uses of antimony, the manufacture of amalgams, and the isolation of spirits of wine, or ethyl alcohol. Important compilations of recipes and techniques in this period include The Pirotechnia (1540; trans. 1943), by the Italian metallurgist Vannoccio Biringuccio; Concerning Metals (1556; trans. 1912), by the German mineralogist Georgius Agricola; and Alchemia (1597), by Andreas Libavius, a German naturalist and chemist. Most famous of all was the 16th-century Swiss alchemist Philippus Paracelsus. Paracelsus held that the elements of compound bodies were salt, sulfur, and mercury, representing, respectively, earth, air, and water; fire he regarded as imponderable, Science Alchemy Alchemy, Ancient Art Practiced Especially In The Middl Science Alchemy Alchemy, ancient art practiced especially in the Middle Ages, devoted chiefly to discovering a substance that would transmute the more common metals into gold or silver and to finding a means of indefinitely prolonging human life. Although its purposes and techniques were dubious and often illusory, alchemy was in many ways the predecessor of modern science, especially the science of chemistry. The birthplace of alchemy was ancient Egypt, where, in Alexandria, it began to flourish in the Hellenistic period; simultaneously, a school of alchemy was developing in China. The writings of some of the early Greek philosophers might be considered to contain the first chemical theories; and the theory advanced in the 5th century BC by Empedocles?that all things are composed of air, earth, fire, and water?was influential in alchemy. The Roman emperor Caligula is said to have instituted experiments for producing gold from orpiment, a sulfide of arsenic, and the emperor Diocletia n is said to have ordered all Egyptian works concerning the chemistry of gold and silver to be burned in order to stop such experiments. Zosimus the Theban (about AD 250-300) discovered that sulfuric acid is a solvent of metals, and he liberated oxygen from the red oxide of mercury. The fundamental concept of alchemy stemmed from the Aristotelian doctrine that all things tend to reach perfection. Because other metals were thought to be less "perfect" than gold, it was reasonable to assume that nature formed gold out of other metals deep within the earth and that with sufficient skill and diligence an artisan could duplicate this process in the workshop. Efforts toward this goal were empirical and practical at first, but by the 4th century AD, astrology, magic, and ritual had begun to gain prominence. A school of pharmacy flourished in Arabia during the caliphates of the Abbasids from 750 to 1258. The earliest known work of this school is the Summa Perfectionis (Summit of Perfection) , attributed to the Arabian scientist and philosopher Geber; the work is consequently the oldest book on chemistry proper in the world and is a collection of all that was then known and believed. The Arabian alchemists worked with gold and mercury, arsenic and sulfur, and salts and acids, and they became familiar with a wide range of what are now called chemical reagents. They believed that metals are compound bodies, made up of mercury and sulfur in different proportions. Their scientific creed was the potentiality of transmutation, and their methods were mostly blind gropings; yet, in this way, they found many new substances and invented many useful processes. >From the Arabs, alchemy generally found its way through Spain into Europe. The earliest authentic works extant on European alchemy are those of the English monk Roger Bacon and the German philosopher Albertus Magnus; both believed in the possibility of transmuting inferior metals into gold. This idea excited the imagination , and later the avarice, of many persons during the Middle Ages. They believed gold to be the perfect metal and that baser metals were more imperfect than gold. Thus, they sought to fabricate or discover a substance, the so-called philosopher's stone, so much more perfect than gold that it could be used to bring the baser metals up to the perfection of gold. Roger Bacon believed that gold dissolved in aqua regia was the elixir of life. Albertus Magnus had a great mastery of the practical chemistry of his time. The Italian Scholastic philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas, the Catalan churchman Raymond Lully, and the Benedictine monk Basil Valentine (flourished 15th century) also did much to further the progress of chemistry, although along alchemical lines, in discovering the uses of antimony, the manufacture of amalgams, and the isolation of spirits of wine, or ethyl alcohol. Important compilations of recipes and techniques in this period include The Pirotechnia (1540; trans. 1943), by the Italian metallurgist Vannoccio Biringuccio; Concerning Metals (1556; trans. 1912), by the German mineralogist Georgius Agricola; and Alchemia (1597), by Andreas Libavius, a German naturalist and chemist. Most famous of all was the 16th-century Swiss alchemist Philippus Paracelsus. Paracelsus held that the elements of compound bodies were salt, sulfur, and mercury, representing, respectively, earth, air, and water; fire he regarded as imponderable,

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Advertising May Be Harmful to Your Spelling

Advertising May Be Harmful to Your Spelling Advertising May Be Harmful to Your Spelling Advertising May Be Harmful to Your Spelling By Maeve Maddox The United States has a government official called the Surgeon General who is the nations chief adviser in matters of health. One of the most famous to hold the job was Dr. C. Everett Koop, author of warning labels on cigarette packages. We need a Teacher General who could advise and decree on matters of English usage. Until a President arises who sees the need for such an office, Im willing to be the Unofficial Teacher General of the United States. Ill begin by placing virtual warning labels on two recent advertising products that could be harmful to writers whose spelling is a bit shaky to begin with. The first is the title of a recent Will Smith movie: The Pursuit of Happyness. Since the title is already quite catchy, echoing as it does a familiar line from the American Declaration of Independence, the reason for the cutesy spelling eludes me. The rule for adding suffixes to words ending in y is to change the y to i before adding the suffix: happy + ness = happiness. This spelling rule also applies to forming noun plurals and third person verb forms: baby/babies; carry/carries. The other offender is a recent Target television commercial that has singers chanting words like fabulous, meticulous, stainless, timeless. Otherwise entertaining, the ad has captions that spell fabulous as fabuless and meticulous as meticuless. If American schools were producing efficient spellers, such media nonsense could be shrugged away. As it is, misspelled advertising copy only adds to the confusion of a public already insecure when it comes to standard usage. The word from the Teacher General is, dont trust advertising spelling. Invest in a reliable dictionary. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:4 Types of Gerunds and Gerund Phrases5 Brainstorming Strategies for WritersHow Do You Determine Whether to Use Who or Whom?

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Applying Marxism to contemporary issues of work and employment

Marx’s ideas of ownership of production, alienation and power relationships may play a key role in explaining contemporary issues in work and employment such as lack of job security, having a voice within the workplace and discrimination. As stated in â€Å"The workplace and social democracy in the post-crisis age†, the financial crisis and recession have caused a change in attitudes towards employment relationships. More now than ever employees worry about job security. Marx belonged to a period of industrial society, whereby factories had thousands of employees all under one authoritative figure, the Boss or Manager. Job Security in this era was not a massive issue as it is now in contemporary times. The Joseph Rowntree Foundation in 1999 published the results of Job Insecurity and Work Intensification survey and showed that job insecurity had steadily been rising since the second world war. The majority of job insecurity lay in the manufacturing industries and blue-collar workers during the 1970’s and 1980#s but at the beginning of the 1990’s professional and managerial workers had their first great exposure to job insecurity. The information age which we now live in has cost many civil servant s their jobs, due to streamlining of systems through computer technology. White collar workers were much less prepared for the changes affecting their occupation. Because redundancy had never occurred to these workers before, the idea of unemployment caused most to experience anxiety and insecurities. Some argue this is an overreaction when compared to the bigger issue of insecurity experienced by the working classes (Giddens, 2009). Anxieties from job insecurities can lead to â€Å"loss of control† and a link has been made between job insecurity and poor overall health (Burchell et al, 1996). This feeling of helplessness against impending unemployment can be explained by Marx’s theory of alienation. Blauner (1964) argued that the introduction of automation to factories has reduced worker alienation. Automation has helped to â€Å"integrate the workforce and gave workers a sense of control over their work that had been lacking with other forms of technology†. E vidently having a sense of ownership towards your work and feeling part of a community diminishes alienation and in turn will diminish any sense of job insecurity: as workers will feel their role within the workplace is needed. Richard Sennett (1998) conducted a study of workers in a bakery which had an automated high-tech production line. Ironically none of the workers were actually bakers but workers trained in how to use the machinery, but only how to use the machinery. The â€Å"bakers† had no physical contact with the bread at any point. Computers decided every aspect of the baking process. However, despite the workers being skilled with computers, not one was trained in how to fix the computers when they broke, causing massive disruption amongst the production line. Sennett found that the workers wanted to be useful and fix the computers but did not because the automation had destroyed their autonomy. Computer technology within the workplace has not only led to an incre ase in workers’ skills but also a group of clerical, service and production workers who lack autonomy in their jobs, are alienated from their work, and lack job security. Another issue concerning work and employment in the UK currently is the movement of work. In a bid for maximum profit, some companies have moved the work from its country of origin to developing countries, where the work is cheaper. Now British companies such as Primark and Matalan have been accused of exploiting workers in these other countries because of their extremely low pricing. It is widely known that transnational factories in developing countries use sweatshop conditions, child labour and pay exploitative rates of pay. Any codes of conduct put in place are either sneakily avoided or completely disregarded altogether: â€Å"research consistently revealed an inadequate, if not poor, level of integration of CSR and Code compliance responsibilities in the internal structure of MNEs and suppliers† (ILO, 2003). However, as wrong as we may think this is, it could be argued that there has just been a shift in location of exploitation. Marx argued that the bourgeoisie, or the owners of production, exploited workers during the period of feudalism. Society was divided into peasants who worked on the land and nobles who were paid in terms of both crops and labour in return for protection, during this period wages were practically unheard of. For Marx, owning land and being able to take food from peasants if fundamentally different from being a peasant working on the land. Peasants (according to Marx) were a group with shared interests and attitudes and nobles were another. This still applies to today’s world of transnational corporations (TNCs). TNCs open factories in developing countries where cheaper labour can be found. The motives between TNCs and nobles are not all that dissimilar. Although TNCs have the resources to choose where to place their factories, such as technology, money and power, whereas nobles were born into a position of power and had no desire to move as they were meant to serve a duty to protect the fundamental relationship betw een owner and producer are still the same. Nobles wanted to extract maximum surplus and gain power, peasants wanted to be free or at the very least have more to eat. The introduction of towns and technology created a possibility for â€Å"free† labour it actually only led to new classes such as bankers and guilders and thus created new conflicts. In modern day society Marx’s theory of class conflict and exploitation is still relevant. TNCs take the role of the nobles or the owner of production and sweatshop workers take the role of peasants, exploited for their cheap labour in order for the TNCs to gain maximum profit and inevitable more power. Increasing intensity of international competition, particularly from Far Eastern countries, where wages are lower, weakens unions’ bargaining power (Western, 1997). In the early development of modern industry, workers had little or no political rights and very little influence over the conditions of work in which they were employed. Unions were developed in order to restore this imbalance of power between workers and their employees. Through Unions workers influence within the workplace was considerably increased. Originally, unions were set up as defensive organizations; workers could stop any overwhelming power that employers enforced on workers’ daily lives. Now, workers have negotiating rights with employers (which means they can press for economic benefits and any problems within the workplace can be discussed). Unions have essentially enabled workers to have a voice within the workplace and in turn have helped the working classes battle through their struggle with the bourgeoisie, as Marx highlighted. â€Å"Of all the classes that stand face to face with the bourgeoisie today, the proletariat alone is a really revolutionary class. The other classes decay and finally disappear in the face of modern industry, the proletariat is its special and essential product.† Marx depicted the working classes as in a constant resistance to acquire a voice/power and the introduction of Unions, especially the dramatic influence Unions gained after the second world war, has made this a possibility. However, alongside international competition, there are several other factors that have created a fall in union density within industries. High levels of unemployment due to recession in the world economic activity, particularly during the 1980s has weakened the bargaining power of labour and the introduction of right-wing governments such as Margaret Thatcher in 1979 led to an aggressive assault on unions throughout the 1980s. These attacks on unions can be seen replicated in the recent conservative coalition government as well. But possibly the most prominent of union failings was seen during the National Union of Minors strike in the UK in 1984-5. Marx believed that â€Å"the proletariat †¦ is a revolutionary class† and that at some point the working classes would rise against the owners of production. However, this is unlikely to occur any time soon. Union membership has declined considerably in industrialized countries and right-wing governments are not the only source of blame. High unemployment and more flexible production decrease the force of unionism (unionism works well when many people work together in large factories and there is a collective atmosphere). Having considered this though, Unions are highly unlikely to disappear. Workers individually have very little say or power when it comes to their employment and rely heavily on unions to provide this type of support. The collective strength that unions give t o workers enables the proletariat to carry on with their struggle against the bourgeoisie and as long as unions continue to work hard in stabilizing their position within the economic and political sphere then trade unions are likely to be here to stay. However, the chances of their ever being an uprising as Marx has suggested in his writings is dubious. Dwindling memberships to unions suggest people are losing faith in union support and this implies that workers have almost given up in their â€Å"struggle†. One of the aims of unions is to eradicate discrimination within the workforce. Discrimination in the workplace has always been a recurring issue. Gender divisions within the workplace have never been eradicated, nor has ethnicity (not fully anyway). Divisions of labour between genders have been evident in humanity for thousands of years. Inequality in modern day society is seen as wrong. From an economic view point not making use of everyone’s maximum potential regardless of their gender, class or ethnicity is wasteful. From a Marxist perspective, societies that have inequality will suffer. But for women, it can be questionable if women are in the job market at allWomen suffer from a dual burden (Young, 2000). In modern society women are expected to maintain a job whilst dealing with domestic chores and childcare. Because of these responsibilities thrust upon women, women are more likely to be found in certain job sectors which tend to be low in status. Women are more likely t o be found in â€Å"poor quality† jobs (part time, temporary, low pay, long hours, unpleasant, few benefits). Again this seems unlikely to be choice (or not â€Å"free† choice) but some have argued that these jobs reflect women’s preference for jobs compatible with home life and child care. Marxist feminists argue that men benefit from family life at the expense of women. Women as mothers are pressured by culture to have children and to take time out of the labour market to bring them up. These children become the workforce of the future at little or no expense to the capitalist class. This also benefits men, because it means that women cannot compete on a level playing field for jobs or promotion opportunities if their first priority is looking after children. But this male dominance is not universal. Some men are even discriminated against in the workforce due to their class or ethnicity. Factors such as language skills intervene causing racial preferences wit hin the workplace. The â€Å"job application culture† we live in requires individuals to give off first impressions that dazzle, however many companies look for image or whether you would â€Å"fit† in to the company. Not having UK qualifications may make applications harder (if an employer does not recognise a level of qualification he is likely to disregard it). Ethnic minority groups come under discrimination, however not all the time and not everywhere. In some companies whereby international relations are crucial to their business, languages skills may come in useful. But still discrimination occurs, whether it is gendered or ethnic. Arguably not making full use of a persons’ skill is wasteful. Economically it should not matter who a person is or what a person looks like for a job to get done. And Marx, in this instance, is correct in stating that not making full potential of every worker will cause society to suffer. Not just at the level of the company, b ut also at the level of the individual. Bibliography: Blauner, R. (1964) Alienation and Freedom (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) Burchell, B. Et. al (1996) â€Å"Job Insecurity and Work intensification: Flexibility and the Changing boundaries of work† (York: YPS ILO (2003) â€Å"Business and code of conduct implementation: how firms use management systems for social performance† (Geneva: ILO), mimeo Jameson, H. 22 March 2011, â€Å"The Workplace and social democracy in the post-crisis age†, Policy Network, http://www.policy-network.net/articles/3981/The-workplace-and-social-democracy-in-the-post-crisis-age, Accessed 25th March 2011 Marx, K. Communist Manifesto. Sennett, R. (1998) The corrosion of character: The personal consequences of work in the new capitalism (London: Norton) Western, B. (1997) Between classes and market: Postwar Unionization in the Capitalist Democracies (Princeton: Princeton University Press) or put poshly – appropriate the fruits of our labour but here is the problem according to marx in the evil capitalist system the capitalist (the factory owner) pay the exchange value of labour for an individuals service which is only enough to keep him alive but the capitalist gets the use value of his labour (the total value of the labour) or put poshly – appropriate the fruits of our labour but here is the problem according to marx in the evil capitalist system the capitalist (the factory owner) pay the exchange value of labour for an individuals service which is only enough to keep him alive but the capitalist gets the use value of his labour (the total value of the labour) Applying Marxism to contemporary issues of work and employment Marx’s ideas of ownership of production, alienation and power relationships may play a key role in explaining contemporary issues in work and employment such as lack of job security, having a voice within the workplace and discrimination. As stated in â€Å"The workplace and social democracy in the post-crisis age†, the financial crisis and recession have caused a change in attitudes towards employment relationships. More now than ever employees worry about job security. Marx belonged to a period of industrial society, whereby factories had thousands of employees all under one authoritative figure, the Boss or Manager. Job Security in this era was not a massive issue as it is now in contemporary times. The Joseph Rowntree Foundation in 1999 published the results of Job Insecurity and Work Intensification survey and showed that job insecurity had steadily been rising since the second world war. The majority of job insecurity lay in the manufacturing industries and blue-collar workers during the 1970’s and 1980#s but at the beginning of the 1990’s professional and managerial workers had their first great exposure to job insecurity. The information age which we now live in has cost many civil servant s their jobs, due to streamlining of systems through computer technology. White collar workers were much less prepared for the changes affecting their occupation. Because redundancy had never occurred to these workers before, the idea of unemployment caused most to experience anxiety and insecurities. Some argue this is an overreaction when compared to the bigger issue of insecurity experienced by the working classes (Giddens, 2009). Anxieties from job insecurities can lead to â€Å"loss of control† and a link has been made between job insecurity and poor overall health (Burchell et al, 1996). This feeling of helplessness against impending unemployment can be explained by Marx’s theory of alienation. Blauner (1964) argued that the introduction of automation to factories has reduced worker alienation. Automation has helped to â€Å"integrate the workforce and gave workers a sense of control over their work that had been lacking with other forms of technology†. E vidently having a sense of ownership towards your work and feeling part of a community diminishes alienation and in turn will diminish any sense of job insecurity: as workers will feel their role within the workplace is needed. Richard Sennett (1998) conducted a study of workers in a bakery which had an automated high-tech production line. Ironically none of the workers were actually bakers but workers trained in how to use the machinery, but only how to use the machinery. The â€Å"bakers† had no physical contact with the bread at any point. Computers decided every aspect of the baking process. However, despite the workers being skilled with computers, not one was trained in how to fix the computers when they broke, causing massive disruption amongst the production line. Sennett found that the workers wanted to be useful and fix the computers but did not because the automation had destroyed their autonomy. Computer technology within the workplace has not only led to an incre ase in workers’ skills but also a group of clerical, service and production workers who lack autonomy in their jobs, are alienated from their work, and lack job security. Another issue concerning work and employment in the UK currently is the movement of work. In a bid for maximum profit, some companies have moved the work from its country of origin to developing countries, where the work is cheaper. Now British companies such as Primark and Matalan have been accused of exploiting workers in these other countries because of their extremely low pricing. It is widely known that transnational factories in developing countries use sweatshop conditions, child labour and pay exploitative rates of pay. Any codes of conduct put in place are either sneakily avoided or completely disregarded altogether: â€Å"research consistently revealed an inadequate, if not poor, level of integration of CSR and Code compliance responsibilities in the internal structure of MNEs and suppliers† (ILO, 2003). However, as wrong as we may think this is, it could be argued that there has just been a shift in location of exploitation. Marx argued that the bourgeoisie, or the owners of production, exploited workers during the period of feudalism. Society was divided into peasants who worked on the land and nobles who were paid in terms of both crops and labour in return for protection, during this period wages were practically unheard of. For Marx, owning land and being able to take food from peasants if fundamentally different from being a peasant working on the land. Peasants (according to Marx) were a group with shared interests and attitudes and nobles were another. This still applies to today’s world of transnational corporations (TNCs). TNCs open factories in developing countries where cheaper labour can be found. The motives between TNCs and nobles are not all that dissimilar. Although TNCs have the resources to choose where to place their factories, such as technology, money and power, whereas nobles were born into a position of power and had no desire to move as they were meant to serve a duty to protect the fundamental relationship betw een owner and producer are still the same. Nobles wanted to extract maximum surplus and gain power, peasants wanted to be free or at the very least have more to eat. The introduction of towns and technology created a possibility for â€Å"free† labour it actually only led to new classes such as bankers and guilders and thus created new conflicts. In modern day society Marx’s theory of class conflict and exploitation is still relevant. TNCs take the role of the nobles or the owner of production and sweatshop workers take the role of peasants, exploited for their cheap labour in order for the TNCs to gain maximum profit and inevitable more power. Increasing intensity of international competition, particularly from Far Eastern countries, where wages are lower, weakens unions’ bargaining power (Western, 1997). In the early development of modern industry, workers had little or no political rights and very little influence over the conditions of work in which they were employed. Unions were developed in order to restore this imbalance of power between workers and their employees. Through Unions workers influence within the workplace was considerably increased. Originally, unions were set up as defensive organizations; workers could stop any overwhelming power that employers enforced on workers’ daily lives. Now, workers have negotiating rights with employers (which means they can press for economic benefits and any problems within the workplace can be discussed). Unions have essentially enabled workers to have a voice within the workplace and in turn have helped the working classes battle through their struggle with the bourgeoisie, as Marx highlighted. â€Å"Of all the classes that stand face to face with the bourgeoisie today, the proletariat alone is a really revolutionary class. The other classes decay and finally disappear in the face of modern industry, the proletariat is its special and essential product.† Marx depicted the working classes as in a constant resistance to acquire a voice/power and the introduction of Unions, especially the dramatic influence Unions gained after the second world war, has made this a possibility. However, alongside international competition, there are several other factors that have created a fall in union density within industries. High levels of unemployment due to recession in the world economic activity, particularly during the 1980s has weakened the bargaining power of labour and the introduction of right-wing governments such as Margaret Thatcher in 1979 led to an aggressive assault on unions throughout the 1980s. These attacks on unions can be seen replicated in the recent conservative coalition government as well. But possibly the most prominent of union failings was seen during the National Union of Minors strike in the UK in 1984-5. Marx believed that â€Å"the proletariat †¦ is a revolutionary class† and that at some point the working classes would rise against the owners of production. However, this is unlikely to occur any time soon. Union membership has declined considerably in industrialized countries and right-wing governments are not the only source of blame. High unemployment and more flexible production decrease the force of unionism (unionism works well when many people work together in large factories and there is a collective atmosphere). Having considered this though, Unions are highly unlikely to disappear. Workers individually have very little say or power when it comes to their employment and rely heavily on unions to provide this type of support. The collective strength that unions give t o workers enables the proletariat to carry on with their struggle against the bourgeoisie and as long as unions continue to work hard in stabilizing their position within the economic and political sphere then trade unions are likely to be here to stay. However, the chances of their ever being an uprising as Marx has suggested in his writings is dubious. Dwindling memberships to unions suggest people are losing faith in union support and this implies that workers have almost given up in their â€Å"struggle†. One of the aims of unions is to eradicate discrimination within the workforce. Discrimination in the workplace has always been a recurring issue. Gender divisions within the workplace have never been eradicated, nor has ethnicity (not fully anyway). Divisions of labour between genders have been evident in humanity for thousands of years. Inequality in modern day society is seen as wrong. From an economic view point not making use of everyone’s maximum potential regardless of their gender, class or ethnicity is wasteful. From a Marxist perspective, societies that have inequality will suffer. But for women, it can be questionable if women are in the job market at allWomen suffer from a dual burden (Young, 2000). In modern society women are expected to maintain a job whilst dealing with domestic chores and childcare. Because of these responsibilities thrust upon women, women are more likely to be found in certain job sectors which tend to be low in status. Women are more likely t o be found in â€Å"poor quality† jobs (part time, temporary, low pay, long hours, unpleasant, few benefits). Again this seems unlikely to be choice (or not â€Å"free† choice) but some have argued that these jobs reflect women’s preference for jobs compatible with home life and child care. Marxist feminists argue that men benefit from family life at the expense of women. Women as mothers are pressured by culture to have children and to take time out of the labour market to bring them up. These children become the workforce of the future at little or no expense to the capitalist class. This also benefits men, because it means that women cannot compete on a level playing field for jobs or promotion opportunities if their first priority is looking after children. But this male dominance is not universal. Some men are even discriminated against in the workforce due to their class or ethnicity. Factors such as language skills intervene causing racial preferences wit hin the workplace. The â€Å"job application culture† we live in requires individuals to give off first impressions that dazzle, however many companies look for image or whether you would â€Å"fit† in to the company. Not having UK qualifications may make applications harder (if an employer does not recognise a level of qualification he is likely to disregard it). Ethnic minority groups come under discrimination, however not all the time and not everywhere. In some companies whereby international relations are crucial to their business, languages skills may come in useful. But still discrimination occurs, whether it is gendered or ethnic. Arguably not making full use of a persons’ skill is wasteful. Economically it should not matter who a person is or what a person looks like for a job to get done. And Marx, in this instance, is correct in stating that not making full potential of every worker will cause society to suffer. Not just at the level of the company, b ut also at the level of the individual. Bibliography: Blauner, R. (1964) Alienation and Freedom (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) Burchell, B. Et. al (1996) â€Å"Job Insecurity and Work intensification: Flexibility and the Changing boundaries of work† (York: YPS ILO (2003) â€Å"Business and code of conduct implementation: how firms use management systems for social performance† (Geneva: ILO), mimeo Jameson, H. 22 March 2011, â€Å"The Workplace and social democracy in the post-crisis age†, Policy Network, http://www.policy-network.net/articles/3981/The-workplace-and-social-democracy-in-the-post-crisis-age, Accessed 25th March 2011 Marx, K. Communist Manifesto. Sennett, R. (1998) The corrosion of character: The personal consequences of work in the new capitalism (London: Norton) Western, B. (1997) Between classes and market: Postwar Unionization in the Capitalist Democracies (Princeton: Princeton University Press) or put poshly – appropriate the fruits of our labour but here is the problem according to marx in the evil capitalist system the capitalist (the factory owner) pay the exchange value of labour for an individuals service which is only enough to keep him alive but the capitalist gets the use value of his labour (the total value of the labour) or put poshly – appropriate the fruits of our labour but here is the problem according to marx in the evil capitalist system the capitalist (the factory owner) pay the exchange value of labour for an individuals service which is only enough to keep him alive but the capitalist gets the use value of his labour (the total value of the labour)